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Cognition and Learning

Cognition and Learning

Your child may:

  • learn at a slower pace than others their age even with support
  • find it difficult to understanding some lessons or subjects
  • struggle with organisation and memory skills
  • have a specific difficulty affecting one particular part of their learning performance such as in literacy or numeracy

Learning difficulties cover a wide range of needs, including:

Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD)

SpLD is an umbrella term which indicates that pupils display differences across their learning. Pupils with SpLD may have a particular difficulty in learning to read, write, spell or manipulate numbers so that their attainment in these areas is below their performance in other areas. Pupils may also have problems with short term memory, organisational skills and co-ordination. SpLD covers the whole ability range and the severity of their impairment varies widely; it encompasses a range of conditions such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and dyspraxia.

Moderate Learning Difficulty (MLD)

Pupils with MLD will have attainments well below expected levels in all or most areas of the curriculum, despite appropriate interventions. Pupils with MLD have much greater difficulty than their peers in acquiring basic literacy and numeracy skills and in understanding concepts. They may also have associated speech and language delay, low self-esteem, low levels of concentration and underdeveloped social skills.

Severe Learning Difficulty (SLD)

Pupils with severe learning difficulties have significant cognitive impairments. This has a major effect on their ability to participate in the school curriculum without support. They may also have associated difficulties in mobility and co-ordination, communication and perception and acquisition of self-help skills.

Profound and multiple learning difficulty (PMLD)

Pupils with PMLD have severe and complex learning needs, in addition they have other significant difficulties, such as physical disabilities or a sensory impairment. Someone with a profound and multiple learning disability might have difficulties seeing, hearing, speaking and moving. They may have complicated health and social care needs due to these or other conditions.